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高中英语语法大全

作者:Mickey    文章来源:方向标英语网    点击数:    更新时间:2013-9-5 【我来说两句

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中学语法大全 代词
目录
人称代词的用法 2
人称代词之主、宾格的替换 2
代词的指代问题 3
并列人称代词的排列顺序 3
物主代词 4
双重所有格 4
反身代词 4
相互代词 5
指示代词 6
疑问代词 7
关系代词 8
every, no, all, both,... 9
none, few, some, any,... 10
代词比较辩异one, that和it 11
one/another/the other 11
"the"的妙用 12
anyone/any one;... 12
both, either, neither,... 13
many, much 14
few, little, a few,... 14

2.1 人称代词的用法
1)人称代词的主格在句子中作主语或主语补语,例如:
  John waited a while but eventually he went home.
  约翰等了一会儿,最后他回家了。
  John hoped the passenger would be Mary and indeed it was she.
  约翰希望那位乘客是玛丽,还真是她。

说明:在复合句中,如果主句和从句主语相同,代词主语要用在从句中,名词主语用在主句中,例如:
  When he arrived, John went straight to the bank.
  约翰一到就直接去银行了。

2)人称代词的宾格在句子中作宾语或介词宾语,但在口语中也能作主语补语,第一人称在省略句中,还可以作主语,例如:
 I saw her with them, at least, I thought it was her.
 我看到她和他们在一起,至少我认为是她。(her做宾 语,them做介词宾语,her作主语补语)
   a. -- Who broke the vase? --谁打碎了花瓶?
   b. -- Me.    --我。(me作主语补语= It's me.)

说明:在上面两例句中,her和me分别作主语补语。现代英语中多用宾格,在正式文体中这里应为she和I。
返回顶端〉〉
2.2 人称代词之主、宾格的替换
1) 宾格代替主格
  a.在简短对话中,当人称代词单独使用或在not 后,多用宾语。
   ---- I like English.   --我喜欢英语。
   ---- Me too.       --我也喜欢。
   ---- Have more wine?   --再来点酒喝吗?
   ---- Not me.       --我可不要了。

  b.在表示比较的非正式的文体中,常用宾格代替主格。 但如果比较状语的谓语保留,则主语只能用主格。
    He is taller than I/me.
    He is taller than I am.

2) 主格代替宾格
  a. 在介词but,except 后,有时可用主格代替宾格。

  b. 在电话用语中常用主格。
    ---- I wish to speak to Mary. --我想和玛丽通话。
    ---- This is she.       --我就是玛丽。

 注意:在动词be 或to be 后的人称代词视其前面的名词或代词而定。
    I thought it was she.   我以为是她?!     ?主格----主格)
    I thought it to be her.             (宾格----宾格)
    I was taken to be she.  我被当成了她?!   ?主格----主格)
They took me to be her. 他们把我当成了她?! ?(宾格----宾格)
返回顶端〉〉
2.3 代词的指代问题
1)不定代词 anybody,everybody,nobody,anyone, someone, everyone,no one, 及whoever和person在正式场合使用时,可用he, his, him代替。
   Nobody came, did he? 谁也没来,是吗?

 2)动物名词的指代一般用it或they代替,有时也用he, she,带有亲切的感情色彩。
   Give the cat some food. She is hungry. 给这猫一些吃的。她饿了。

 3)指代车或国家,船舶的名词,含感情色彩时常用she。

2.4 并列人称代词的排列顺序
1) 单数人称代词并列作主语时,其顺序为:
    第二人称 -> 第三人称 -> 第一人称
      you -> he/she; it -> I
    You, he and I should return on time.
 2) 复数人称代词作主语时,其顺序为:
    第一人称 -> 第二人称 -> 第三人称
      we?。?gt; you   -> They
注意: 在下列情况中,第一人称放在前面。
   a. 在承认错误,承担责任时,
     It was I and John that made her angry.
     是我和约翰惹她生气了。

   b. 在长辈对晚辈,长官对下属说话时,如长官为第一人称, 如:I and you try to finish it.

   c. 并列主语只有第一人称和第三人称时,

d. 当其他人称代词或名词被定语从句修饰时。

2.5 物主代词
1)物主代词既有表示所属的作用又有指代作用,例如:
   John had cut his finger; apparently there was a broken glass on his desk.
  约翰割破了手指,显而易见,他桌子上有个破玻璃杯。

  物主代词有形容词性(my, your等)和名词性(mine, yours等)两种,形容词性的物主代词属于限定词。
  名词性的物主代词在用法上相当于省略了中心名词的 --'s属格结构,例如:
   Jack's cap  意为   The cap is Jack's.
   His cap   意为   The cap is his.

 2) 名词性物主代词的句法功能
  a. 作主语,例如:
   May I use your pen? Yours works better.
   我可以用一用你的钢笔吗? 你的比我的好用。
  
  b. 作宾语,例如:
   I love my motherland as much as you love yours.
   我爱我的祖国就像你爱你的祖国一样深。
  
  c. 作介词宾语,例如:
   Your should interpret what I said in my sense of the word, not in yours.
   你应当按我所用的词义去解释我说的话,而不能按你自己的意义去解释。

  d. 作主语补语,例如:
The life I have is yours. It's yours. It's yours. 我的生命属于你,属于你,属于你。
返回顶端〉〉
2.6 双重所有格
物主代词不可与 a, an, this, that, these, those, some, any, several, no, each, every, such, another, which等词一起前置,修饰一个名词,而必须用双重所有格。
 公式为:
  a, an, this, that +名词+of +名词性物主代词。如:
    a friend of mine.
each brother of his.
返回顶端〉〉
2.7 反身代词
1) 列表

I you you she he
myself yourself yourselves herself himself

we they it one
ourselves themselves itself oneself

 2)做宾语
  a. 有些动词需有反身代词
   absent, bathe, amuse, blame, dry, cut, enjoy, hurt, introduce, behave
   We enjoyed ourselves very much last night. 我们昨晚玩得很开心。
   Please help yourself to some fish.  请你随便吃点鱼。

  b. 用于及物动词+宾语+介词
   take pride in, be annoyed with, help oneself to sth.
   I could not dress (myself) up at that time. 那个时候我不能打扮我自己。
  
  注:有些动词后不跟反身代词, get up, sit-down, stand up, wake up等。
  Please sit down. 请坐。

 3) 作表语; 同位语
   be oneself: I am not myself today.  我今天不舒服。
   The thing itself is not important.  事情本身并不重要。
 
 4) 在不强调的情况下,but, except, for 等介词后宾语用反身代词或人称代词宾格均可。如:
No one but myself (me) is hurt.
注意:
  a. 反身代词本身不能单独作主语。
   (错) Myself drove the car.
   (对) I myself drove the car. 我自己开车。
  b. 但在and, or, nor连接的并列主语中,第二个主语可用反身代词,特别是myself 作主语。
   Charles and myself saw it.

 5)第二人称作宾语,要用反身代词。
You should be proud of yourself. 你应为自己感到骄傲。
返回顶端〉〉
2.8 相互代词
1)相互代词只有each other和one another两个词组。他们表示句中动词所叙述的动作或感觉在涉及的各个对象之间是相互存在的,例如:
  It is easy to see that the people of different cultures have always copied each other.
  显而易见,不同文化的人总是相互借鉴的。

 2) 相互代词的句法功能:
  a. 作动词宾语;
   People should love one another. 人们应当彼此相爱。

  b. 可作介词宾语;
   Does bark, cocks crow, frogs croak to each other.  吠、鸡鸣、蛙儿对唱。

 说明:传统语法认为,相互关系存在于两个人或物之间用each other, 存在于两个以上人和物之间用one another。现代英语中,两组词交替使用的实例也很多,例如:

   He put all the books beside each other.
    他把所有书并列摆放起来。
   He put all the books beside one another.
    他把所有书并列摆放起来。
   Usually these small groups were independent of each other.
    这些小团体通常是相互独立的。

  c. 相互代词可加-'s构成所有格,例如:
    The students borrowed each other's notes.
学生们互借笔记。
返回顶端〉〉
2.9 指示代词
1) 指示代词分单数(this / that)和复数(these / those)两种形式,既可作限定词又可做代词,例如:
      单数          复数
限定词:This girl is Mary.  Those men are my
               teachers.
代词: This is Mary.     Those are my
               teachers.

 2) 指示代词的句法功能;
  a. 作主语
    This is the way to do it.
    这事儿就该这样做。
  
   b. 作宾语
    I like this better than that.
    我喜欢这个甚至那个。

   c. 作主语补语
    My point is this.
    我的观点就是如此。

   d. 作介词宾语
    I don't say no to that.
    我并未拒绝那个。
    There is no fear of that.
    那并不可怕。
 说明1:
  指示代词在作主语时可指物也可指人,但作其他句子成分时只能指物,不能指人,例如:
 (对)That is my teacher. 那是我的老师。( that作主语,指人)
 (对)He is going to marry this girl. 他要和这个姑娘结婚。(this作限定词)
 (错)He is going to marry this.?。╰his作宾语时不能指人)
 (对)I bought this. 我买这个。(this指物,可作宾语)

 说明2:
  That和those可作定语从句的先行词,但this和 these不能,同时,在作先行词时,只有those可指人,试比较:
 (对) He admired that which looked beautiful. 他赞赏外表漂亮的东西。
 (对) He admired those who looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的人。(those指人)
 (错) He admired that who danced well.?。╰hat作宾语时不能指人)
 (对) He admired those who danced well. 他赞赏跳舞好的人。(those指人)
 (对) He admired those which looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的东西。(those指物)
返回顶端〉〉
2.10 疑问代词
1) 疑问代词在句中起名词词组的作用,用来构成疑问句。疑问代词有下列几个:
  指 人: who, whom, whose
  指 物: what
  既可指人又可指物: which

 2) 疑问代词在句中应位于谓语动词之前,没有性和数的变化,除who之外也没有格的变化。what, which, whose还可作限定词。试比较:

 疑问代词:Whose are these books on the desk? 
       桌上的书是谁的?
      What was the directional flow of U. S. territorial expansion?
       美国的领土扩张是朝哪个方向的?
 限定词: Whose books are these on the desk?
       桌上的书是谁的?
      What events led to most of the east of the Mississippi River becoming part of the United States?  哪些事件使密西西比河以东的大部分土地归属于美国?

 说明1:
   无论是做疑问代词还是限定词,which 和 what 所指的范围不同。what所指的范围是无限的,而which则指在一定的范围内,例如:
  Which girls do you like best?
   你喜欢哪几个姑娘?
  What girls do you like best?
   你喜欢什么样的姑娘?

 说明2:
   Whom是who的宾格,在书面语中,它作动词宾语或介词宾语,在口语中作宾语时,可用who代替,但在介词后只能用whom, 例如:
  Who(m) did you meet on the street?
    你在街上遇到了谁?(作动词宾语)
  Who(m) are you taking the book to?
    你要把这书带给谁?(作介词宾语,置句首)
  To whom did you speak on the campus?
    你在校园里和谁讲话了?(作介词宾语,置介词 后,不能用who取代。)

 说明3:
   疑问代词用于对介词宾语提问时,过去的文体中介词和疑问代词通常一起放在句首,现代英语中,疑问代词在句首,介词在句未,例如:
 For what do most people live and work?
    大部分人生活和工作的目的是什么?(旧文体)
 What are you looking for?
    你在找什么?(现代英语)

 说明4:
   疑问代词还可引导名词性从句,例如:
 I can't make out what he is driving at.
  我不知道他用意何在。
 Can you tell me whose is the blue shirt on the bed? 
  你能告诉我床上的蓝衬衣是谁的吗?
 Much of what you say I agree with, but I cannot go all the way with you.
你说的我大部分同意,但并不完全赞同。
返回顶端〉〉
2.11 关系代词
1) 关系代词用来引导定语从句。它代表先行词,同时在从句中作一定的句子成分,例如:The girl to whom I spoke is my cousin. 跟我讲话的姑娘是我表妹。(该句中whom既代表先行词the girl,又在从句中作介词to的宾语。)

 2) 关系代词有主格,宾格和属格之分,并有指人与指物之分。在限定性定语从句中,that 可指人也可指物,见下:
      限定性   非限定性    限定性
      指 人   指  物   指人或指物
主 格   who    which     that
宾 格   whom    that     that
属 格   whose  of which/whose  of which/whose

 例如:
  This is the pencil whose point is broken.
   这就是那个折了尖的铅笔。
  (whose 指物,在限定性定语从句中作定语)
 
  He came back for the book which he had forgotten. 他回来取他丢下的书。
?。╳hich指物,在限定性定语从句中作宾语,可以省略)

 3) 关系代词which的先行词可以是一个句子,例如:
  He said he saw me there, which was a lie.
  他说在那儿看到了我,纯属谎言。

 说明: 关系代词that在从句中作宾语或表语时可省略, 例如:
  I've forgotten much of the Latin I once knew. 
   我过去懂拉丁语,现在大都忘了。
  He's changed. He's not the man he was.
他变化很大,已不是过去的他了。
返回顶端〉〉
2.12 every, no, all, both,...
1)不定代词有
 all , both, every, each, either, neither, more, little, few, much, many, another, other, some, any , one, no 以及some, something, anything, everything, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, nothing , nobody, no one, none, everybody, everyone.等。
 
 2) 不定代词的功能与用法

  a. 除every 和no外不定代词既可用作名词,也可用作形容词。every和no在句中只能作定语。
   I have no idea about it.
 
  b. all 都,指三者以上。
   all 的主谓一致:all的单复数由它所修饰或指代的名词的单复数决定。
   All goes well.  一切进展得很好。
   all 通常不与可数名词单数连用,如:不说 all the book,而说 the whole book。
   但all可与表时间的可数名词单数连用,如 all day,all night,all the year; 但习惯上不说 all hour,all century。
   all还可以与一些特殊的单数名词连用,如 all China, all the city, all my life, all the way
 
 3)  both 都,指两者。
  a. both 与复数动词连用,但 both… and…可与单数名词连用。
 
  b. both, all 都可作同位语,其位置在行为动词前, be 动词之后。如果助动词或情态动词后面的实义动词省 去,则位于助动词或情态动词之前。
   Who can speak Japanese?  We both (all) can.
 
 4) neither 两者都不
  a. neither作主语时,谓语动词用单数。
  b. 作定语与单数名词连用,但neither… nor 用作并列连词,可与复数名词连用。其谓语采用就近原则。
  c. 可用于下列句型,避免重复。
   She can't sing,neither (can) he.

  neither 与nor
  d. 如前句是否定式从句,则主句用neither,而不用 nor。
   If you don't do it,neither should I. 如果你不干,我也不干。
  e. 如后连续有几个否定句式,则用nor,不用neither。
He can't sing,nor dance,nor skate.
返回顶端〉〉
2.13 none, few, some, any,...
一、 none 无
  1) none作主语,多与of 构成短语 none of。 在答语中,none可单独使用?!     ?
  Are there any pictures on the wall? None.
  2) none作主语,谓语动词单复数均可。但如做表语,则其单复数与表语一致。
    It is none of your business.
  
二、few 一些,少数
  few 作主语时,谓语动词用复数,多用于肯定句。

三、some 一些
  1) 可与复数名词及不可数名词连用。
  2) 当做"某一"解时,也可与单数名词连用。(= a certain)
    You will be sorry for this some day.
    总有一天,你会后悔这件事的。
    A certain (some) person has seen you break the rule.
    某些人不同意你的看法。

注意:
  (1)在肯定疑问句中用some代替any。
  (2)some用于其他句式中:
    a. 肯定疑问句中:说话人认为对方的答案会是肯定的,或期望得到肯定回答时。
    Would you like句式中,表委婉请求或建议,如:
      Would you like some coffee?
    b. 在条件状语从句中表示确定的意义时,如:
    If you need some help,let me know.
    c.  some位于主语部分,
    Some students haven't been there before.
    d.  当否定的是整体中的部分时,some可用于否定句。如:
    I haven't heard from some of my old friends these years.
    这些年我没有收到一些老朋友的信。

四、any 一些
  1) any 多用于否定句和疑问句和条件状语从句中。
  当句中含有任何的意思时,any可用于肯定句。
   Here are three novels. You may read any. 这有三本小说,你可任读一本。

五、one, ones 为复数形式
  ones必须和形容词连用。如果替代的名词时无形容词在前,则用some, any,而不
用ones。
Have you bought any rulers? Yes,I 've bought some.
返回顶端〉〉
2.14 代词比较辩异one, that和it
one表示泛指,that和it 表示特指。that与所指名词为同类,但不是同一个,而it 与所指名词为同一个。
 I can't find my hat. I think I must buy one. (不定)
 我找不到我的帽子了。我想我该去买一顶。

 The hat you bought is bigger than that I bought. (同类但不同个)
 你买的那顶帽子比我买的大。
 
 I can't find my hat. I don' t know where I put it. ( 同一物)
 我找不到我的帽子。我不知道我把它放在哪了。
返回顶端〉〉
2.15 one/another/the other
one… the other 只有两个        
 some… the others  有三个以上
 one… another,another…
 some… others,others…
 others = other people/things
 the others = the rest 剩余的全部
 
 1) 泛指另一个用another。
 2) 一定范围内两人(物),一个用one,另一个用the other。
 3) 一定范围内三者,一个用one,另一个用one (another),第三个可用the other,a third。
 4) 一定范围内,除去一部分人/物,剩余的全部用the others。
 5) 泛指别的人或物时,用others当在一定范围内,除去一部分后,剩余部分但不是全部时,也用others。
返回顶端〉〉
2.16 "the"的妙用
He is one of the students who help me.
  He is the one of the students who helps me.
  他是帮我的学生之一。

  第一句定语从句与the students 一致。
  第二句定语从句与the one 一致。
返回顶端〉〉
2.17 anyone/any one;...
1.anyone 和 any one
  anyone仅指人,any one既可指人,也可指物。

2.no one 和none
 a)  none 后跟of短语,既可指人又可指物,而no one只单独使用,只指人。

 b)  none 作主语,谓语动词用单,复数均可,而no one作主语谓语动词只能是单数。
 
 None of you could lift it. 你们中没有人可举起它。

 ---- Did any one call me up just now? --刚才有人打电话给我吗?
 ---- No one.            --没有。

3.every 和each
1) every 强调全体的概念, each强调个体概念。
   Every student in our school works hard. 我们学校的学生都很用功。
   Each student may have one book.. 每个学生都可有一本书。

2) every 指三个以上的人或物(含三个),each指两个以上的人或物 (含两个)。

3) every 只作形容词,不可单独使用。each可作代词或形容词。
   Every student has to take one.
   Each boy has to take one.
   Each of the boys has to take one.

4) every不可以作状语,each可作状语。

5) every 有反复重复的意思,如 every two weeks等; each没有。

6) every 与not 连用,表示部分否定; each 和not连用表示全部否定。
   Every man is not honest. 并非每个人都诚实。
Each man is not honest. 这儿每个人都不诚实。
返回顶端〉〉
2.18 both, either, neither,...
这些词都可用作代词或形容词。其位置都在be 动词之后,行为动词之前或第一助动词之后。

 1) both (两者都),either(两者中任何一个), neither (两者都不)。以上词使用范围为两个人或物。
  Neither of the two boys is clever. 两个男孩都不聪明。
 
 2) both,either
  both与复数连用,either与单数连用。

  Both the boys are clever.  两个男孩都很聪明。
  Either of the two boys is clever. 两个男孩都很聪明。
  There are flowers on both sides of the street.
  (两岸)
  There are flowers on either side of the street.
  (岸的两边)
  路边长满了野花。

 3) all (所有的,全部的人或物),any (任何一个), none (都不)。 以上词使用范围为三者以上。
  All the flowers are gone. 所有的花都谢了。
  I don't like any of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。
  I like none of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。

 注意:all与none用法一样。跟单数名词,用单数动词;跟复数名词,用复数动词。
    All of the students are there.
      所有的学生都在那。
    All (of) the milk is there. 
      所有的牛奶都在那。
返回顶端〉〉
2.19 many, much
Many,much都意为"许多", many + 可数名词,much + 不可数名词。
   How many people are there at the meeting?
   How much time has we left?
   Many of the workers were at the meeting.
Much of the time was spent on learning.
返回顶端〉〉
2.20 few, little, a few,...
(a) few + 可数名词, (a) little + 不可数名词
 a few / a little 为肯定含义,还有一点
 few / little 为否定含义,没有多少了。
 He has a few friends.   他有几个朋友。
 He has few friends.    他几乎没有朋友。
 We still have a little time. 我们还有点时间。
 There is little time left.几乎没剩下什么时间了。

典型例题:
  Although he 's wealthy,he spends___ on clothes.
  A. little  B. few C. a little  D. a few
  答案: A. spend所指的是钱,不可数,只能用little或 a little. 本句为although引导的让步状语从句,由句意知后句为否定含义,因此应用little表示几乎不。

固定搭配:
  only a few (=few)  not a few (=many)  quite a few (=many)
  many a (=many)
  Many books were sold.
  Many a book was sold.
   卖出了许多书。


中学语法大全 倒装
目录
倒装句之全部倒装 17
倒装句之部分倒装 17
以否定词开头作部分倒装 18
so, either, nor作部分倒装 18
only在句首要倒装的情况 19
as, though引导的倒装句 19
其他部分倒装 19


2.21 倒装句之全部倒装
全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和 一般过去时。常见的结构有:
 1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。
  There goes the bell.
  Then came the chairman.
  Here is your letter.

 2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。
  Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.
  Ahead sat an old woman.

 注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。
   Here he comes.   Away they went.
返回顶端〉〉
2.22 倒装句之部分倒装
部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。

 1) 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。
  Never have I seen such a performance.
  Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.
  Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.
 当Not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。

注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。
   I have never seen such a performance.
   The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.

典型例题  

1) Why can't I smoke here?
  At no time___ in the meeting-room
A. is smoking permitted  B. smoking is permitted
C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit
答案A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。 这些否定词包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.

2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.
  A. man did know  B. man know  C. didn't man know  D. did man know
 答案D.  看到Not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在C,D 中选一个。
 改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。

2.23 以否定词开头作部分倒装
如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than
  Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.
  Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.
  No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.

典型例题
No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.
A. the game began      B. has the game begun
C. did the game begin    D. had the game begun
答案D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这类表示否定意义的词有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。

注意:只有当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only… but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。
  Not only you but also I am fond of music.
返回顶端〉〉
2.24 so, either, nor作部分倒装
表示"也"、"也不" 的句子要部分倒装?!   ?
  Tom can speak French. So can Jack.
  If you won't go, neither will I.

典型例题
 ---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?
 ---I don't know, _____.
 A. nor don't I care  B. nor do I care  C. I don't care neither  D. I don't care also
答案:B. nor为增补意思"也不关心",因此句子应倒装。A错在用 don't 再次否定, C neither 用法不对且缺乏连词。 D缺乏连词。

  注意: 当so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为"的确如此"。
  Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.
  ---It's raining hard.   ---So it is.

2.25 only在句首要倒装的情况
Only in this way, can you learn English well.
  Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.
  如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装
  Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.

2.26 as, though引导的倒装句
as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。

注意:
    1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。
    2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,  随实义动词一起放在主语之前。
   Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.

注意:
  让步状语从句中,有though,although时,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用。

2.27 其他部分倒装
1)  so… that 句型中的so 位于句首时,需倒装。
   So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.

2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中:
  May you all be happy.

3) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。
  Were I you, I would try it again.

典型例题:
1) Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is  
A. man did know  B. man knew  C. didn't man know  D. did man know
答案为D. 否定词Not在句首,要求用部分倒装的句子结构。

2) Not until I began to work ___ how much time I had wasted. 
A. didn't I realize  B. did I realize  C. I didn't realize D. I realize
 答案为B。

3) Do you know Tom bought a new car?
 I don't know, ___.
 A. nor don't I care  B. nor do I care 
 C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also
 解析:答案为B. 句中的nor引出部分倒装结构,表示"也不"。由 so, neither, nor引导的倒装句,表示前一情况的重复出现。其中, so用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。

 

中学语法大全 定语从句
目录
定语从句 22
关系代词引导的定语从句 22
关系副词引导的定语从句 22
判断关系代词与关系副词 23
限制性和非限制性定语从句 24
介词+关系词 24
as,which非限定性定语从句 25
先行词和关系词二合一 25
what/whatever/that... 26
关系代词that的用法 26


2.28 定语从句
定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。
  关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。
  关系副词有:when, where, why等。

2.29 关系代词引导的定语从句
关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。
1)who, whom, that
  这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:
  Is he the man who/that wants to see you?
他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)
  He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.
他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换), 例如:
  They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down.  那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。
  Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。

3)which, that
  它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:
  A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)
  The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)


2.30 关系副词引导的定语从句
关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
1)when, where, why
  关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:
  There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。
  Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。
  Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?

2)that代替关系副词
  that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如:
  His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。
  He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

2.31 判断关系代词与关系副词
方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:
  This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.
  I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

  判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。)
  (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.
  (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.
  (对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.
  (对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.

  习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。

  方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。
例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?
  A. where B. that  C. on which  D. the one
例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.
  A. where  B. that  C. on which  D. the one
答案:例1 D,例2 A

例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.
例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.
  在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。
  而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。
  关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中作主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。


2.32 限制性和非限制性定语从句
1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:
   This is the house which we bought last month.   这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)
   The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)
2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:
   Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理•史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。
   My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。
   This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:
   He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。
   Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。


2.33 介词+关系词
1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。
2)that前不能有介词。
3) 某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词when 和where 互换。
  This is the house in which I lived two years ago.
  This is the house where I lived two years ago.
  Do you remember the day on which you joined our club?
  Do you remember the day when you joined our club?
返回顶端〉〉
2.34 as, which非限定性定语从句
由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。As一般放在句首,which在句中。
  As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.
  The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us.  

典型例题 
1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.
A. it  B. that  C. which  D. he
  答案C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰,而用which.,it 和he 都使后句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接??銮已e句意不通。

2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.
A. what B. which C. that D. it
  答案B。which可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而what不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句,it不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。

3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park..
A. that B. which  C. as  D. it
 答案B.
  as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:
 (1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。
 (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.。
  在本题中,prevent由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为B。

As 的用法
例1. the same… as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。
   I have got into the same trouble as he (has).
例2. as可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。
  As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.
  As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health.
 As是关系代词。例1中的as作know的宾语;例2中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词know要用被动式。

2.35 先行词和关系词二合一
1)Whoever spits in public will be punished here.
   (Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替)
 2)The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school.
  (what 可以用all that代替)
返回顶端〉〉
2.36 what/whatever/that...
1)Whoever spits in public will be punished here.
   (Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替)
 2)The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school.
  (what 可以用all that代替)

2.37 关系代词that的用法
1)不用that的情况
  a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。
    (错) The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.
  b) 介词后不能用。
     We depend on the land from which we get our food.
     We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.

2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况
  a) 在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。
  b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。
  c) 先行词有the only, the very修饰时,只用that?!?
  d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。.
  e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。

举例:
  All that is needed is a supply of oil.
  所需的只是供油问题。
  Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 
  那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。

 

中学语法大全 动词不定式
目录
不定式作宾语 28
不定式作补语 28
不定式主语 30
It's for sb/It's of sb 30
不定式作表语 31
不定式作定语 31
不定式作状语 31
用作介词的to 32
省to 的动词不定式 32
动词不定式的否定式 33
不定式特殊句型too…to… 33
不定式特殊句型so as to 34
不定式特殊句型Why not 34
不定式的时态和语态 34
动名词与不定式 35

 

2.38 不定式作宾语
1) 动词+ 不定式
afford  aim   appear  agree  arrange  ask   be    decide bother  care choose  come  dare   demand desire  determine expect  elect  endeavor hope fail  happen  help  hesitate learn  long mean  manage  offer ought plan  prepare pretend  promise refuse seem   tend   wait    wish undertake
举例: 
 The driver failed to see the other car in time.
   司机没能及时看见另一辆车。
 I happen to know the answer to your question.
   我碰巧知道你那道问题的答案。

2)动词+不定式 ; 动词+宾语+不定式
ask, beg, choose, expect , hate, help intend like, love, need prefer, prepare, promise, want, wish…
 I like to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢每件东西都保持整洁。
 I like you to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢你年使每件东西都保持整洁。
I want to speak to Tom.  我想和汤姆谈话。
I want you to speak to Tom.  我想让你和汤姆谈话。

3) 动词+疑问词+ to
decide, know, consider forget, learn, remember, show, understand, see, wonder, hear, find out, explain, tell
  Please show us how to do that. 请演示给我们如何去做。
  There are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can't make up my mind which to buy.有这么多的录音机,我都拿不定主意买哪一种。

注意:疑问词带不定式在句中作成分时,谓语动词用单数。
   The question is how to put it into practice.
   问题是怎样把它付诸实施。

2.39 不定式作补语
1) 动词+宾语+不定式(to do)
advise   allow   appoint   believe   cause   challenge command  compel  consider  declare   drive   enable  encourage  find    forbid   force   guess   hire    imagine  impel   induce   inform  instruct  invite   judge    know    like   order    permit  persuade  remind   report   request   require  select send    state   suppose   tell    think  train   trust   understand urge    warn 

例句:
  a. Father will not allow us to play on the street.       
   父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。
  b. We believe him to be guilty.
   我们相信他是有罪的。

Find 的特殊用法:
  Find 后可用分词做宾补,或先加形式宾语,再加形容词,最后加带to 的动词不定式。find后也可带一个从句。此类动词还有get,have。
   I found him lying on the ground.
   I found it important to learn.
   I found that to learn English is important.

典型例题:
  The next morning she found the man ___ in bed,dead. 
  A. lying  B. lie  C. lay  D. laying  
答案:A.find的宾语后面,用分词或分词短语,起宾语补足语作用。现在分词表达主动,也表达正在进行,过去分词表达被动。

2) to + be 的不定式结构,作补语的动词。
Acknowledge,  believe, consider,  think, declare(声称), discover, fancy(设想), feel   find, guess,  judge,  imagine,   know,  prove,     see(理解), show,    suppose,     take(以为),   understand
   We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class.
   我们认为汤姆是班上最好的学生之一。

典型例题
   Charles Babbage is generally considered ___ the first computer. 
A. to invent B. inventing  C. to have invented  D. having invented 
答案:A. 由consider to do sth. 排除B、D。. 此句只说明发明这一个事实,不定式后用原形即可。而C为现在完成时,发明为点动词一般不用完成时,且此处也不强调对现在的影响,因此不选C。

3) to be +形容词
Seem,     appear,   be said,  be supposed,  be believed, be thought, be known,  be reported, hope, wish,  desire,   want,    plan,  expect,    mean…
 The book is believed to be uninteresting.
 人们认为这本书没什么意思。

4) there be+不定式
believe, expect, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, want, wish, undrstand
 We didn't expect there to be so many people there.我们没料到会有那么多人在哪里。

注意 : 有些动词需用as 短语做补语,如regard, think believe, take, consider.
 We regard Tom as our best teacher. 我们认为汤姆是我们最好的老师。
 Mary took him as her father . 玛丽把他当作自己的父亲。

2.40 不定式主语
1) It's easy (for me) to do that.我做这事太容易了

easy, difficult,  hard,  important,  possible,  impossible, comfortable,  necessary,  better;  
the first,  the next,   the last,  the best, too much,  too little,  not enough
 It's so nice to hear your voice.
 听到你的声音真高兴。
 It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it.
 当你不用车的时候,锁车是有必要的。

2) It's very kind of you to help us. 他帮助我们,他真好。
Kind, nice,  stupid, rude,  clever, foolish, thoughtful, thoughtless, brave, considerate(考虑周到的), silly,  selfish(自私的)
例句:
   It was silly of us to believe him. 我们真愚蠢,竟然相信了他。
   It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything. 他不给他们任何东西,这显得太自私了。

注意:1) 其他系动词如,look,appear等也可用于此句型
   2) 不定式作为句子成分时,动词用单数形式。
   3) 当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时,不能用It is… to…的句型
    (对)To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。
    (错)It is to believe to see.

2.41 It's for sb/It's of sb
1)for sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, hard, difficult,  interesting, impossible等:
   It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。
2)of sb的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。
   It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。
 
for 与of 的辨别方法:
  用介词后面的代词作主语,用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果道理上通顺用of,不通则用for。如:
   You are nice. (通顺,所以应用of)。
   He is hard. (人是困难的,不通,因此应用for。)

2.42 不定式作表语
不定式可放在be动词后面,形成表语。例如:
   My work is to clean the room every day.
   His dream is to be a doctor.

2.43 不定式作定语
不定式做定语通常要放在被修饰的词后。例如:
   I have a lot of work to do. 
   So he made some candles to give light.

2.44 不定式作状语
1)目的状语 
To… only to (仅仅为了), in order to, so as to, so(such)… as to… (如此……以便……)
  He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。
  I come here only to say good-bye to you. 我来仅仅是向你告别。

2)作结果状语,表事先没有预料到的,要放在句子后面。
  What have I said to make you angry.
  He searched the room only to find nothing.

3) 表原因
  I'm glad to see you.

典型例题
 The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to ___. 
 A. sit  B. sit on  C. be seat  D. be sat on
答案:B. 如果不定式为不及物动词,其后应有必要的介词。当动词与介词连用时,常位于"形容词+动词不定式"结构的末尾。

2.45 用作介词的to
to 有两种用法: 一为不定式+动词原形; 一为介词+名词/动名词, to 在下面的用法中是第二种,即to+ 名词/动名词:

admit to承认,       confess to承认,
be accustomed to 习惯于,  be used to 习惯于, stick to 坚持,       turn to开始,着手于, devote oneself to 献身于, be devoted to 致力于, look forward to 盼望,   pay attention to 注意

2.46 省to 的动词不定式
1) 情态动词 ( 除ought 外,ought to):
2) 使役动词 let, have, make:
3) 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补,省略to。
 
注意:在被动语态中则to 不能省掉。
  I saw him dance.
 =He was seen to dance.
  The boss made them work the whole night.
 =They were made to work the whole night.
4) would rather,had better:
5) Why… / why not…:
6) help 可带to,也可不带to, help sb (to) do sth:
7) but和except:but前是动词do时,后面出现的动词用不带to的动词不定式。
8) 由and, or和than连接的两个不定式,第二个to 可以省去:
9) 通常在discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand等词后,可以省去to be: 
   He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。

举例:
   He wants to move to France and marry the girl.
He wants to do nothing but go out.

比较:  He wants to do nothing but go out.
     He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine.

典型例题
1) ---- I usually go there by train. 
  ---- Why not ___ by boat for a change? 
  A. to try going  B. trying to go  C. to try and go  D. try going  
  答案:D. why not 后面接不带to 的不定式,因此选D。

2) Paul doesn't have to be made ___. He always works hard. 
  A. learn  B. to learn  C. learned  D. learning
  答案:B. make后接不带to 的动词不定式,当其用于被动时,to 不可省略。
返回顶端〉〉
2.47 动词不定式的否定式
Tell him not to shut the window… 
  She pretended not to see me when I passed by. 我走过的时候,她假装没看见。

典型例题
1)Tell him ___ the window. 
  A. to shut not  B. not to shut  C. to not shut
  D. not shut 
  答案:B。 tell sb to do sth 的否定形式为tell sb not to do sth.

2) She pretended ___ me when I passed by. 
  A. not to see  B. not seeing  C. to not see
  D. having not seen 
  答案:A。 pretend 后应接不定式。其否定形式为pretend not to do sth.。

3)Mrs. Smith warned her daughter ___ after drinking. 
  A. never to drive  B. to never driver 
  C. never driving  D. never drive 
  答案:A。warn sb to do sth. 的否定形式为warn sb not to do sth. 此处用的是否定词never.

4) The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street,but his mother told him ____. 
  A. not to  B. not to do  C. not do it 
  D. do not to
 答案:A。not to 为not to do it 的省略形式??梢灾挥胻o这个词,而不必重复整个不定式词组。及物动词do后应有名词、代词等,否则不对,因此B,D不对。

5) The patient was warned ___ oily food after the operation. 
  A. to eat no  B. eating not  C. not to eat 
  D. not eating
  答案:C。warn一词要求后用不定式,此处为不定式的被动,否定形式为be warned not to do。

2.48 不定式特殊句型too…to…
1)too…to  太…以至于…
  He is too excited to speak.
  他太激动了,说不出话来。
  ---- Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗?
  ---- Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same. 不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢您。

2) 如在too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定, too 后那个词表达一种委婉含义,意 为"不太"。
  It's never too late to mend. (谚语)
   改过不嫌晚。

3) 当too 前面有only, all, but时,意思是:非?!?等于very。
  I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 我非常高兴能帮助你。
  He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。
返回顶端〉〉
2.49 不定式特殊句型so as to
1) 表示目的;它的否定式是so as not to do。
   Tom kept quiet about the accident so as not to lose his job. 
     汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的工作。
   Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby.
     轻点进去,别惊醒了婴儿。

2) so kind as to ---劳驾
   Would you be so kind as to tell me the time?
     劳驾,现在几点了。

2.50 不定式特殊句型Why not
"Why not +动词原形"表达向某人提出建议,翻译为:"为什么不……?" "干吗不……?"
例如:
   Why not take a holiday?
   干吗不去度假?

2.51 不定式的时态和语态
时态\语态    主动      被动
一般式      to do       to be done
进行式      to be doing  
完成式      to have done   to have been done
完成进行式    to have been doing  

1) 现在时:一般现在时表示的动词,有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,有时发生在谓语动词的动作之后。
  He seems to know this.
  I hope to see you again. = I hope that I'll see you again. 我希望再见到你。

2) 完成时:表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。
 I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble.
 He seems to have caught a cold.

3) 进行时: 表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。
 He seems to be eating something.

4) 完成进行时:
 She is known to have been wreaking on the problem for many years.

2.52 动名词与不定式
1) 动名词与不定式的区别:
 动名词表达的是: 状态,性质,心境,抽象,经常性,已发生的
 不定式表达的是: 目的,结果,原因,具体,一次性,将发生的

2) 接不定式或动名词,意义相同。

3) 动名词与不定式语义不同的有11 组:
  1 stop to do      stop doing   
  2 forget to do     forget doing
  3 remember to do    remember doing     
  4 regret to do     regret doing
  5 cease to do     cease doing       
  6 try to do       try doing
  7 go on to do     go on doing       
  8 afraid to do     afraid doing
  9 interested to do   interested doing 
 10 mean to do      mean doing
 11 begin/ start to do  begin/ start doing    


中学语法大全 动词
目录
动词 37
系动词 38
什么是助动词 39
助动词be的用法 39
助动词have的用法 40
助动词do 的用法 40
助动词shall和will的用法 41
助动词should,would的用法 41
短语动词 42
非谓语动词 42

 

2.53 动词
1) 表示动作中状态的词叫做动词。

2) 根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为四类,分别是:实义动词(Notional Verb)、系动词(Link Verb)、助动词(Auxiliary Verb)、情态动词(Modal Verb)。

说明:有些情况下,有些动词是兼类词,例如:
   We are having a meeting.  我们正在开会?!?(having是实义动词。)
  He has gone to New York. 他已去纽约。
(has是助动词。)

3) 动词根据其后是否带有宾语,可分为两类,分别是:及物动词(Transitive Verb)、不及物动词(Intransitive Verb),缩写形式分别为vt. 和vi.。

说明:同一动词有时可用作及物动词,有时可用作不及物动词。例如:
 She can dance and sing.
 她能唱歌又能跳舞。(sing在此用作不及物动词。)
 She can sing many English songs.
 她能唱好多首英文歌曲。(sing用作及物动词。)

4) 根据是否受主语的人称和数的限制,可分两类,分别是:限定动词(Finite Verb)、非限定动词(Non-finite Verb)例如:
 She sings very well.
 她唱得很好。(sing受主语she的限制,故用第三人称单数形式sings。)
 She wants to learn English well.
 她想学好英语。(to learn不受主语she的限制,没有词形变化,是非限定动词。

说明:英语中共有三种非限定动词,分别是:动词不定式(Infinitive)、动名词(Gerund)、分词(Participle)。

5) 根据动词的组成形式,可分为三类,分别是:单字词(One-Word Verb)、短语动词(Phrasal Verb)、动词短语(Verbal Phrase)例如:
  The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases.
  英语里有许多短语动词和动词短语。(contains是单字动词。)

  Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries.
  学生们学会查字典。(look up是短语动词。)

  The young ought to take care of the old.
  年轻人应照料老人。(take care of是动词短语。)

6)动词有五种形态,分别是:原形(Original Form)、第三人称单数形式(Singular From in Third Personal)、过去式(Past Form)、过去分词(Past Participle)、现在分词(Present Participle)。

2.54 系动词
系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb),作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(亦称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。

说明:
有些系动词又是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语,例如:
   He fell ill yesterday. 
  他昨天病了。(fell是系动词,后跟补足语,说明主语情况。)
   He fell off the ladder. 
  他从梯子上摔下来。fell是实义动词,单独作谓语。

1)状态系动词
用来表示主语状态,只有be一词,例如:
He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。(is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。)

2)持续系动词
用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如:
He always kept silent at meeting.  他开会时总保持沉默。
This matter rests a mystery.  此事仍是一个谜。

3)表像系动词
用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look, 例如:
He looks tired.  他看起来很累。
He seems (to be) very sad.  他看起来很伤心。

4)感官系动词
感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如:
 This kind of cloth feels very soft. 
  这种布手感很软。
 This flower smells very sweet. 
 这朵花闻起来很香。

5)变化系动词
  这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run.
例如:
  He became mad after that.  自那之后,他疯了。
  She grew rich within a short time.  她没多长时间就富了。

6)终止系动词
表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, trun out, 表达"证实","变成"之意,例如:
  The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。
  The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。
  His plan turned out a success.  他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)

2.55 什么是助动词
1)协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词(Auxiliary Verb)。被协助的动词称作主要动词(Main Verb)。
助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用,例如:
   He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。
(doesn't是助动词,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义)

2) 助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来:
  a. 表示时态,例如:
   He is singing. 他在唱歌。
   He has got married. 他已结婚。
  b. 表示语态,例如:
   He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。
  c. 构成疑问句,例如:
   Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗?
   Did you study English before you came here?  你来这儿之前学过英语吗?
  d. 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句,例如:
   I don't like him.  我不喜欢他。
  e. 加强语气,例如:
   Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。
   He did know that.  他的确知道那件事。
3) 最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would

2.56 助动词be的用法
1) be +现在分词,构成进行时态,例如:
They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。
English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。

2) be + 过去分词,构成被动语态,例如:
The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。
English is taught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。

3) be + 动词不定式,可表示下列内容:
 a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排,例如:
   He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。
   We are to teach the freshpersons. 我们要教新生。
  说明: 这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。
 b. 表示命令,例如:
  You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。
  He is to come to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。
 c. 征求意见,例如:
  How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他?
  Who is to go there? 谁该去那儿呢?
 d. 表示相约、商定,例如:
  We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨7点在校门口集合。

2.57 助动词have的用法
1)have +过去分词,构成完成时态,例如:
  He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。
  By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work. 
  上月未为止,他们已经完成工作的一半。

2)have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时,例如:
  I have been studying English for ten years.
  我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。

3)have+been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态,例如:
  English has been taught in China for many years.
  中国教英语已经多年。

2.58 助动词do 的用法
1) 构成一般疑问句,例如:
  Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗?
  Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗?

2) do + not 构成否定句,例如:
  I do not want to be criticized.  我不想挨批评。
  He doesn't like to study.  他不想学习。
  In the past, many students did not know the importance of English. 过去,好多学生不知道英语的重要性。

3) 构成否定祈使句,例如:
 Don't go there. 不要去那里。
 Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。
说明: 构成否定祈使句只用do,不用did和does。

4) 放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气,例如:
 Do come to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。
 I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。
 I do miss you. 我确实想你。

5) 用于倒装句,例如:
 Never did I hear of such a thing.  我从未听说过这样的事情。
 Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English.
只有在开始大学生活时我们才认识到英语的重要性。
说明: 引导此类倒装句的副词有never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well等。

6) 用作代动词,例如:
 ---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗?
 ---- Yes, I do. --是的,喜欢。(do用作代动词,代替like Beijing.)
 He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he?
 他知道如何开车,对吧?

2.59 助动词shall和will的用法
shall和will作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时,例如:
   I shall study harder at English.  我将更加努力地学习英语。
   He will go to Shanghai.  他要去上海。

说明:
 在过去的语法中,语法学家说shall用于第一人称,will 只用于第二、第三人称。现在,尤其是在口语中,will常用于第一人称,但shall只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较:

 He shall come. 他必须来。(shall有命令的意味。)
 He will come. 他要来。(will只与动词原形构成一般将来时。)

2.60 助动词should, would的用法
1)should无词义,只是shall的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人称,例如:
  I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week.
  我昨天给他打电话,问他我下周干什么。

比较:
  "What shall I do next week?" I asked.
  "我下周干什么?"我问道。(可以说,shall变成间接引语时,变成了should。)

2) would也无词义,是will的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称,例如:
   He said he would come.  他说他要来。
比较:
   "I will go," he said. 他说:"我要去那儿。"
   变成间接引语,就成了:
   He said he would come. 
   原来的will变成would,go变成了come.。

2.61 短语动词
动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词(Phrasal Verb)。例如:
  Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。(turn off是短语动词)

  短语动词的构成基本有下列几种:
1) 动词+副词,如:black out;
2) 动词+介词,如:look into;
3) 动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词(Particle)。

2.62 非谓语动词
在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词分为三种形式:不定式,动名词,和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词)。

1)不定式
时态\语态 主动 被动
一般式 to do to be done
完成式 to have done to have been done

2)动名词
时态\语态 主动 被动
一般式 doing being done
完成式 having done having been done

3)分词
时态\语态 主动 被动
一般式 doing being done
完成式 having done having been done

否定形式: not +不定式, not + 动名词, not + 现在分词

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